The Fifth Column Forum
Not logged in [Login - Register]
Go To Bottom

Printable Version  
 Pages:  1  2    4    6
Author: Subject: NATO Naval
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 11:57 AM


'Cheaper to Buy a New One': Norway Discovers Sunken Frigate's True Repair Costs

(Source: Sputnik News; posted May 14, 2019)


Finally raised after spending four months underwater, the Norwegian frigate Helge Ingstad is now estimated to cost up to 12 billion kroner to restore it to operational condition, or about three times its original cost. (Forsvaret photo)

Although raised and set afloat after four months underwater, the frigate Helge Ingstad, which sank following NATO drills in late 2018, is far from operational and still demands enormous investments.

Repairing the frigate KNM Helge Ingstad will cost over NOK 12 billion ($1.37 billion), which is three times as much as its original cost, the newspaper Bergens Tidende reported.

"The cost of repairing the frigate will exceed NOK 12 billion. Building a new one will be cheaper", the damage assessment to be presented on Wednesday said.

Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency communications adviser Vigdis Hvaal said that no comments will be issued until the Wednesday condition report, which will determine the frigate's future.

It set the Norwegian military budget back NOK 4.3 billion (almost $500 million) to buy the frigate. The ship was delivered in 2009. The costs of the Helge Ingstad's replacement haven't been estimated yet, but the defence department reckons that ordering several ships at once will be much cheaper, as restarting production for just one ship could result in a disproportionately high per ship cost.

"When you talk about the costs associated with building a new frigate, it is important to remember that building just one is far more expensive than building more", the Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency concluded.

The price for a new frigate is expected to be lower than the cost of repair.

In their annual report, the Armed Forces wrote that it is relevant to consider re-using the details for remaining vessels or sell the steel.

The loss of the KNM Helge Ingstad has left Norway's defence capability weakened, adding an extra burden on the four remaining frigates. "The accident will affect the Armed Forces' operational ability, deliveries and preparedness", the Armed Forces admitted.

The Helge Ingstad collided with the Maltese-flagged tanker Sola in November of last year while heading back after the major NATO exercise Trident Juncture, billed as the largest on Norwegian soil in decades. While some of the 137-member crew sustained light injuries, the frigate suffered a 45-metre-long gash on its starboard and went down shortly after. The tanker, by contrast, emerged from the collision with only minor damage and is back in service.

The frigate remained underwater for almost four months before it was raised and transported to Haakonsvern in Bergen. On 10 April, the frigate was relaunched after the gash was plugged using steel plates. So far, rescuing, salvaging and transporting costs associated with the accident cost NOK 726 million ($83 million), according to the 2018 Armed Forces annual report.

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 11:58 AM


NOT surprised about this. There has to be very little worth saving, and trying to remove most of what is there to refurbish or replace is just economic nonsense............
View user's profile View All Posts By User
ARH
Super Administrator
*********




Posts: 886
Registered: 10-5-2017
Member Is Offline


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 08:14 PM


I have to wonder what they are doing to replace it with. A multi-ship purchase with someone else makes sense, but who else and what?



Repent!

The darkest hour of Humanity is upon us. The world
shall meet it's end and we shall be submerged into a
new dark age. Repent your sins, for the apocalypse,
and the end, is extremely f@#king nigh!
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 11:38 PM


The wording used tends to make me think that whatever it is is going to be procured in 2 or three units.........NANSEN or not, is a whole different question.

Type 26 anyone?
View user's profile View All Posts By User
ARH
Super Administrator
*********




Posts: 886
Registered: 10-5-2017
Member Is Offline


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 11:42 PM


T-boning a tanker may well end up proving to be a bit of a boost for the Norwegian navy...



Repent!

The darkest hour of Humanity is upon us. The world
shall meet it's end and we shall be submerged into a
new dark age. Repent your sins, for the apocalypse,
and the end, is extremely f@#king nigh!
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 18-5-2019 at 11:44 PM


Sure looks that way............:cool:
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 24-5-2019 at 09:25 AM


“Maritime 2050+:” Future Study of Industry and Research Institutions Demands More Responsibility for Maritime World and International Leadership Role of Germany

(Source: Atlas Elektronik Group; issued May 22, 2019)

The maritime space is essential to human life. Marine resources feed a growing world population, which is increasingly concentrated in coastal areas. Maritime corridors are the backbone of globalization. However, prosperity is not only built upon the unrestricted exchange of resources, goods, information and mobility of people, but especially on the preservation of this unique ecosphere.

"Maritime 2050+" is a joint future study of Atlas Elektronik, the German Aerospace Center and the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE. It is dedicated to the development of the maritime space in the next decades and shows measures to improve the quality of life by bringing together the different economic and ecological interests.

In addition to climate change and immense population growth, the authors of the future study expect an increasing exploitation of the oceans in the coming decades – for drinking water and food, but also in the use of marine resources.

Michael Ozegowski, CEO of Atlas Elektronik: “The growing need for maritime resources is increasing the potential for conflicts between countries. We need to work closer together at national and international level, create new technologies and establish rules that will enable a peaceful management while at the same time protecting the maritime space.”

Dr. Dennis Göge, Executive Board Representative Defence and Security Research, DLR: “We hope that politicians will maintain and ideally intensify the already existing focus on the maritime domain. In order to better bring technological solutions from research into application, we need targeted funding programs. Independent testing facilities, greater support for qualification and training as well as the creation of cross-sectoral synergies are necessary for a sustainable use of the maritime space.”

Prof. Dr. Peter Martini, Head of Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE: “Digitisation and cyber security are the two drivers to further develop the maritime industry. In doing so, we must find user-friendly solutions, integrate AI responsibly and install pragmatic protection mechanisms.”

The authors of the future study "Maritime 2050+" identified the following fields of action as crucial in order to align the different economic, ecological and security-related interests.

Common understanding and clear rules

All relevant stakeholders should develop a shared holistic view of the maritime domain that reflects the complexity of this fragile system. Careless or even criminal behavior has in the past repeatedly led to serious ecological incidents with dire repercussions. There is a need for rules and strictly enforced limitations that apply to all users.

International cooperation

Governments, businesses, research institutions and other key players need to work together to drive initiatives around the world. Only then we can jointly take responsibility for a living space that we all share. There needs to be a guiding hand, but each government must also contribute its intellectual and budgetary share to support the development of joint solutions.

Technological research

It takes a long-term perspective to solve the technological challenges we face. We need global surveillance solutions for maritime applications, the development of autonomous vehicles for transport, exploration, and maintenance, the seamless integration of heterogeneous systems and the fusion of big data streams to exploit the full potential of digitisation.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence will greatly change the ability to use and protect our maritime world. At the same time, intelligent systems cannot completely replace human reasoning in critical situations. Research must therefore deal with responsible decision-making. This includes aspects such as data integrity, causal transparency, or system reliability

Cyber security

Increasing digitisation goes along with increased cyber security threats. With its critical infrastructure, the maritime sector is particularly threatened. In order to be better protected against theft, manipulation, sabotage and disruption, suitable solutions must be developed and implemented in areas such as common standards, certifications, improved system stability and nationwide monitoring. Governments play a key role to achieve this internationally.

Towards German politics, the authors of the future study see above all the need to invest more so that Germany can effectively pursue its economic, environmental and security-related maritime interests.

The report "Maritime 2050+" was handed over on 22 May 2019 in Friedrichshafen, Germany, to the responsible Federal Government Coordinator for the Maritime Industry, Norbert Brackmann. "Maritime 2050+" was jointly created by Atlas Elektronik, the German Aerospace Center and the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics.


The Atlas Elektronik Group stands for maritime and naval solutions above and below the ocean surface. The company holds a leading position in all fields of maritime high technology, from command & control systems including radio & communication systems for submarines, surface combatants and mine warfare systems and ranging to heavyweight torpedoes, coastal surveillance systems and in-service support. ATLAS has established a worldwide customer portfolio. The electronics specialist is an operational unit of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems. The company has a workforce of around 2.200 highly skilled employees.

ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems is one of the world’s leading system suppliers for submarines and naval surface vessels as well as for maritime security technologies. The company has a history of naval shipbuilding that dates back centuries and offers state-of-the-art technologies, innovations and extensive and dependable services to customers around the world. With its Operating Units Submarines, Surface Vessels, Naval Electronic Systems and Services, ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems is part of the ThyssenKrupp Group.

The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is the national aeronautics and space research centre of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its extensive research and development work in aeronautics, space, energy, transport, digitalisation and security is integrated into national and international cooperative ventures. In addition to its own research, as Germany’s space agency, DLR has been given responsibility by the federal government for the planning and implementation of the German space programme. DLR is also the umbrella organisation for one of Germany’s largest project management agencies.

At its core, the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE is geared towards supporting government institutions in the field of external and internal security. In the economic sector, the FKIE focuses on security at airports, in air traffic, for maritime systems and in the IT sector. With its approximately 450 employees at its Bonn and Wachtberg locations, the FKIE is a leading institute for applied research and practical innovation in information and communication technology as well as in the field of human-oriented technology design

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
unicorn
Member





Posts: 978
Registered: 11-5-2017
Member Is Offline

Mood: Resignedly Sceptical

[*] posted on 25-5-2019 at 02:29 PM


Quote: Originally posted by ARH  
I have to wonder what they are doing to replace it with. A multi-ship purchase with someone else makes sense, but who else and what?


I would recommend that they go look at the Danish Navy. Their Iver Huitfeldt-class frigates are good value and they could also acquire an Absalon-class support ship.




It is by will alone I set my mind in motion.
It is by the juice of sapho that thoughts acquire speed,
the lips acquire stains,
the stains become a warning.
It is by will alone I set my mind in motion
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 25-5-2019 at 08:17 PM


I'd be astonished if they go back to the Spanish..........
View user's profile View All Posts By User
unicorn
Member





Posts: 978
Registered: 11-5-2017
Member Is Offline

Mood: Resignedly Sceptical

[*] posted on 26-5-2019 at 09:44 AM


Quote: Originally posted by bug2  
I'd be astonished if they go back to the Spanish..........


I understand your point but it would mean they would be getting a sister ship to what they already have, rather than introducing an orphan into the fleet.

Over several decades of use those costs mount up.




It is by will alone I set my mind in motion.
It is by the juice of sapho that thoughts acquire speed,
the lips acquire stains,
the stains become a warning.
It is by will alone I set my mind in motion
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 26-5-2019 at 03:37 PM


Quite, BUT the inference from the Norwegian Navy is that they are looking for 2-3 new vessels to replace the lost one. IF this is funded properly, then sticking with what you've got in the way of design, etc is not an absolute necessity. The Norwegians are more than a little concerned about the resurgent Russian Navy, and this may be reflected in the final choices they make.

The other factor against the Spanish is that the 'blame' case is far from over or complete. Until that is resolved, Spain is not a possibility in my opinion.
View user's profile View All Posts By User
ADMK2
Member





Posts: 998
Registered: 11-5-2017
Location: Brisvegas
Member Is Offline


[*] posted on 26-5-2019 at 10:59 PM


You wouldn’t think politically that would fly? Oh, hey! You know that frigate that sank? Can we buy another one off them?

The guys we are currently sueing?

Yep. The very same...

Ah, no...




In a low speed post-merge manoeuvring fight, with a high off-boresight 4th generation missile and Helmet Mounted Display, the Super Hornet will be a very difficult opponent for any current Russian fighter, even the Su-27/30
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 27-5-2019 at 09:16 AM


Exactly.....
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 28-5-2019 at 04:03 PM


‘Trieste’ Launched - the Italian Navy’s Amphibious Assault Ship of the Italian Navy

(Source: Italian Navy; issued May 25, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


The Italian Navy’s future LHD, Trieste, was launched on Saturday by Fincantieri in its Stabia shipyard. Displacing 33,000 tonnes, she is the largest warship built in Italy since 1945, and will be handed over to the customer in 2022. (Fincantieri photo)

This is the what has been called the Big Launch, the launch of the ship that will be delivered to the Italian Navy after the necessary fitting out. The multi-role and multi-function amphibious assault ship, funded under the naval defense support program launched in May 2015 is, with a length of 214 meters, the largest Italian naval ship built after the war, and is destined to become the future flagship of the fleet.

Nave Trieste touched the sea today, christened by her godmother, Ms. Laura Mattarella, daughter of the Italian President Sergio Mattarella, who also attended the ceremony. He was welcomed by the President of Fincantieri, Giampiero Massolo, and Managing Director Giuseppe Bono, by Minister of Defense Elizabeth Trenta as well as the Chief of Defense Staff, General Enzo Vecciarelli, and of the Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli. To support her designated commander, Commander Enrico Vignola, other authorities included also Deputy Prime Minister Luigi Di Maio.

During their speeches, Fincantieri’s Bono, presented Nave Trieste as "a company". According to Minister Trenta, she is "the expression of the excellence of the country". General Vecciarelli identified the ship as "the collective defense concentrate," while Adm. Girardelli called her “A modern and irreplaceable multi-purpose instrument that the Defense can use effectively.”

An added value “that increasingly sees the best and most efficient use of investments made by the country in the comprehensive and versatile use of military assets. Trieste is not the point of arrival, but of departure in the development of the plan for the renewal of the Navy’s operational assets, now well underway that certainly will find further impulse, support and sharing," Girardelli said.

Nave Trieste was conceived by the Projects Team of the Naval Staff to be a flexible instrument, a multi-purpose by design, modular, and with low environmental impact. It is a LHD type (Landing Helicopter Dock) vessel because of its ability to use aircraft and amphibious vehicles thanks to the availability of a flight deck and a floodable dock inside the ship.

Ship "Trieste" will be certified by RINA Services in accordance with international conventions for pollution prevention, both for more traditional aspects such as those covered by the MARPOL Convention, and for those that are not yet binding, such as those included in the Hong Kong Convention relative to the issuing of a "Green Passport".

Unit features: LHD - Landing Helicopter Dock

The ship has a length of approximately 214 meters, a maximum speed of 25 knots, and will be equipped with a CODLOG-type propulsion system (COmbined Diesel and Electric Or Gas) that uses electric propulsion for low speeds, in line with the environmental policy of the Navy ("Green Fleet").

The construction and equipment characteristics of Ship Trieste will allow it to project and sustain - in crisis areas – Navy landing forces of the Navy as well as the national capability to project force from the sea; to ensure the strategic transport of a large number of vehicles, personnel and equipment; and to contribute with the Civil Protection Force to relief activities for populations struck by natural disasters by its ability to provide drinking water, electricity and medical support.

The ship can also perform the functions of command and control in the context of emergencies at sea, of civilian evacuation from crisis areas, and humanitarian assistance.

With over 1,000 available beds, the new LHD will also be equipped with a helicopter flight deck of about 230 square meters, and will be capable of supporting operations of a 600-man battalion, and a large garage deck capable of accommodating 1200 linear meters of vehicles, both wheeled and tracked.

The floodable basin, 50 meters long and 15 meters wide, will allow the ship to operate with the most modern amphibious equipment supplied to the NATO and European Union navies.

The various cargo storage areas will be accessible via cranes, stern and side ramps, and cargo handling will be enabled by internal ramps and elevators.

A fully equipped hospital will be on board, with surgical rooms, radiology and analysis, a dental cabinet and a hospital area for 27 seriously hospitalized patients (further admissions are possible in appropriately equipped container modules).

(ends)

Fincantieri: The Multipurpose Amphibious Unit “Trieste” Launched in Castellammare di Stabia

(Source: Fincantieri; issued May 25, 2019)

TRIESTE, Italy --- The launching ceremony of the multipurpose amphibious unit (LHD or Landing Helicopter Dock) “Trieste” took place today at the Fincantieri shipyard in Castellammare di Stabia, in the presence of the President of the Italian Republic Sergio Mattarella, welcomed by Fincantieri’s Chairman Giampiero Massolo and CEO Giuseppe Bono.

This multirole and multipurpose amphibious vessel has been designed [from] the beginning as a flexible, multi-purpose by design, modular unit with a low environmental impact. It is a Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) capable of deploying aircraft and amphibious vehicles and equipment, relying on a flight deck and a floodable basin located on the stern of the ship.

The new unit will be delivered in 2022 and falls within the naval program of the maritime capability of Defence, approved by the Italian Government and Parliament and started in May 2015 (“Naval Act”).

Godmother of the ceremony was Mrs. Laura Mattarella, daughter of the Italian President.

The ceremony was also attended, among others, by the Italian Minister of Economic Development, of Labour and Social Policies and Deputy Prime Minister of Italy Luigi Di Maio and the Italian Minister of Defence Elisabetta Trenta, by the Governor of Campania Vincenzo De Luca, by the Chief of Defence Gen. Enzo Vecciarelli and the Chief of Staff of the Italian Navy Adm. Valter Girardelli.

The unit “Trieste” will be classified by RINA Services pursuant to international conventions for the prevention of pollution regarding traditional aspects - like those addressed by the MARPOL Convention, as well as those not yet mandatory, like the ones covered by the Hong Kong Convention introducing the “Green Passport” concept.

Vessel’s characteristics: LHD - Landing Helicopter Dock

The unit will be approx. 214 meters long with a maximum speed of 25 knots. It will be equipped with a COmbined Diesel eLectric Or Gas (CODLOG) propulsion system and an additional electric propulsion system to be used for low speed sailing, in line with the Italian Navy’s environmental policy (“Green Fleet”).

Thanks to her characteristics in terms of construction and weapon systems, the LHD “Trieste” will be able to project – in crisis areas – the landing force of the Italian Navy and support the Defence national capability projection from the sea, as well as to ensure the strategic transport of vehicles, personnel and equipment, and to support the Civil Protection in providing assistance to countries and populations in case of natural disasters, thanks to her capability to provide drinking water, power supply, healthcare and medical support.

The Unit has also been conceived to carry out command and control functions in case of emergencies at sea, evacuation of nationals and humanitarian assistance operations.

With over 1,000 sleeping accommodations, the new LHD will feature a 230-metre long helicopter flight deck, allowing the operation of a battalion consisting of 600 personnel, and a dock-garage for 1,200 linear metres of wheeled and tracked vehicles, both civilian and military.

The floodable dock - 50 metres long and 15 metres wide - will enable the ship to deploy the most technically advanced amphibious equipment and vehicles of EU and NATO Navies.

The different areas of cargo securing are accessible through cranes, stern and side ramps, and cargo handling will be managed by internal ramps and elevators.

A fully equipped hospital will also be available onboard, complete with operating rooms, radiology and analysis rooms, a dentist’s office, and patient rooms capable of hosting 27 seriously injured patients (further admissions are possible through duly equipped container modules).

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 28-5-2019 at 04:25 PM


Faster and More Resilient Communications for NATO Naval Forces

(Source: Thales; issued May 24, 2019)

For armed forces on joint and allied operations, the ability to share vast amounts of tactical information in the battlespace is crucially important.

By 2025, the new Link 22 tactical datalink will replace Link 11, the digital radio link standard currently used by NATO and its allies.

Operating in the HF and UHF frequency bands, Link 22 will enable naval units to communicate in real time and adapt to a situation as it unfolds so they can accomplish decisive missions effectively.

Link 22 will soon be a vital capability, enabling all components of a NATO naval force to take part in the connected collaborative combat of tomorrow.

Together with Atos, Thales is supporting the transition to collaborative combat in a secure environment through the development of advanced Link 22 functionalities for Thales’s TopLink tactical datalink processor. TopLink is already in service with a dozen countries and also manages tactical messages for airborne units using the Link 16 and Joint Range Extension standards.

To deliver a highly capable, dependable and competitive solution, Atos is contributing its expertise in Link 22 datalink management, while Thales brings its experience in critical multi-link systems to the table.

The agreement builds on a partnership that began in 2009 for initial testing of France’s Link 22 capabilities.

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
ADMK2
Member





Posts: 998
Registered: 11-5-2017
Location: Brisvegas
Member Is Offline


[*] posted on 28-5-2019 at 04:51 PM


Quote: Originally posted by bug2  
‘Trieste’ Launched - the Italian Navy’s Amphibious Assault Ship of the Italian Navy

(Source: Italian Navy; issued May 25, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


The Italian Navy’s future LHD, Trieste, was launched on Saturday by Fincantieri in its Stabia shipyard. Displacing 33,000 tonnes, she is the largest warship built in Italy since 1945, and will be handed over to the customer in 2022. (Fincantieri photo)

This is the what has been called the Big Launch, the launch of the ship that will be delivered to the Italian Navy after the necessary fitting out. The multi-role and multi-function amphibious assault ship, funded under the naval defense support program launched in May 2015 is, with a length of 214 meters, the largest Italian naval ship built after the war, and is destined to become the future flagship of the fleet.

Nave Trieste touched the sea today, christened by her godmother, Ms. Laura Mattarella, daughter of the Italian President Sergio Mattarella, who also attended the ceremony. He was welcomed by the President of Fincantieri, Giampiero Massolo, and Managing Director Giuseppe Bono, by Minister of Defense Elizabeth Trenta as well as the Chief of Defense Staff, General Enzo Vecciarelli, and of the Navy, Admiral Valter Girardelli. To support her designated commander, Commander Enrico Vignola, other authorities included also Deputy Prime Minister Luigi Di Maio.

During their speeches, Fincantieri’s Bono, presented Nave Trieste as "a company". According to Minister Trenta, she is "the expression of the excellence of the country". General Vecciarelli identified the ship as "the collective defense concentrate," while Adm. Girardelli called her “A modern and irreplaceable multi-purpose instrument that the Defense can use effectively.”

An added value “that increasingly sees the best and most efficient use of investments made by the country in the comprehensive and versatile use of military assets. Trieste is not the point of arrival, but of departure in the development of the plan for the renewal of the Navy’s operational assets, now well underway that certainly will find further impulse, support and sharing," Girardelli said.

Nave Trieste was conceived by the Projects Team of the Naval Staff to be a flexible instrument, a multi-purpose by design, modular, and with low environmental impact. It is a LHD type (Landing Helicopter Dock) vessel because of its ability to use aircraft and amphibious vehicles thanks to the availability of a flight deck and a floodable dock inside the ship.

Ship "Trieste" will be certified by RINA Services in accordance with international conventions for pollution prevention, both for more traditional aspects such as those covered by the MARPOL Convention, and for those that are not yet binding, such as those included in the Hong Kong Convention relative to the issuing of a "Green Passport".

Unit features: LHD - Landing Helicopter Dock

The ship has a length of approximately 214 meters, a maximum speed of 25 knots, and will be equipped with a CODLOG-type propulsion system (COmbined Diesel and Electric Or Gas) that uses electric propulsion for low speeds, in line with the environmental policy of the Navy ("Green Fleet").

The construction and equipment characteristics of Ship Trieste will allow it to project and sustain - in crisis areas – Navy landing forces of the Navy as well as the national capability to project force from the sea; to ensure the strategic transport of a large number of vehicles, personnel and equipment; and to contribute with the Civil Protection Force to relief activities for populations struck by natural disasters by its ability to provide drinking water, electricity and medical support.

The ship can also perform the functions of command and control in the context of emergencies at sea, of civilian evacuation from crisis areas, and humanitarian assistance.

With over 1,000 available beds, the new LHD will also be equipped with a helicopter flight deck of about 230 square meters, and will be capable of supporting operations of a 600-man battalion, and a large garage deck capable of accommodating 1200 linear meters of vehicles, both wheeled and tracked.

The floodable basin, 50 meters long and 15 meters wide, will allow the ship to operate with the most modern amphibious equipment supplied to the NATO and European Union navies.

The various cargo storage areas will be accessible via cranes, stern and side ramps, and cargo handling will be enabled by internal ramps and elevators.

A fully equipped hospital will be on board, with surgical rooms, radiology and analysis, a dental cabinet and a hospital area for 27 seriously hospitalized patients (further admissions are possible in appropriately equipped container modules).

(ends)

Fincantieri: The Multipurpose Amphibious Unit “Trieste” Launched in Castellammare di Stabia

(Source: Fincantieri; issued May 25, 2019)

TRIESTE, Italy --- The launching ceremony of the multipurpose amphibious unit (LHD or Landing Helicopter Dock) “Trieste” took place today at the Fincantieri shipyard in Castellammare di Stabia, in the presence of the President of the Italian Republic Sergio Mattarella, welcomed by Fincantieri’s Chairman Giampiero Massolo and CEO Giuseppe Bono.

This multirole and multipurpose amphibious vessel has been designed [from] the beginning as a flexible, multi-purpose by design, modular unit with a low environmental impact. It is a Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD) capable of deploying aircraft and amphibious vehicles and equipment, relying on a flight deck and a floodable basin located on the stern of the ship.

The new unit will be delivered in 2022 and falls within the naval program of the maritime capability of Defence, approved by the Italian Government and Parliament and started in May 2015 (“Naval Act”).

Godmother of the ceremony was Mrs. Laura Mattarella, daughter of the Italian President.

The ceremony was also attended, among others, by the Italian Minister of Economic Development, of Labour and Social Policies and Deputy Prime Minister of Italy Luigi Di Maio and the Italian Minister of Defence Elisabetta Trenta, by the Governor of Campania Vincenzo De Luca, by the Chief of Defence Gen. Enzo Vecciarelli and the Chief of Staff of the Italian Navy Adm. Valter Girardelli.

The unit “Trieste” will be classified by RINA Services pursuant to international conventions for the prevention of pollution regarding traditional aspects - like those addressed by the MARPOL Convention, as well as those not yet mandatory, like the ones covered by the Hong Kong Convention introducing the “Green Passport” concept.

Vessel’s characteristics: LHD - Landing Helicopter Dock

The unit will be approx. 214 meters long with a maximum speed of 25 knots. It will be equipped with a COmbined Diesel eLectric Or Gas (CODLOG) propulsion system and an additional electric propulsion system to be used for low speed sailing, in line with the Italian Navy’s environmental policy (“Green Fleet”).

Thanks to her characteristics in terms of construction and weapon systems, the LHD “Trieste” will be able to project – in crisis areas – the landing force of the Italian Navy and support the Defence national capability projection from the sea, as well as to ensure the strategic transport of vehicles, personnel and equipment, and to support the Civil Protection in providing assistance to countries and populations in case of natural disasters, thanks to her capability to provide drinking water, power supply, healthcare and medical support.

The Unit has also been conceived to carry out command and control functions in case of emergencies at sea, evacuation of nationals and humanitarian assistance operations.

With over 1,000 sleeping accommodations, the new LHD will feature a 230-metre long helicopter flight deck, allowing the operation of a battalion consisting of 600 personnel, and a dock-garage for 1,200 linear metres of wheeled and tracked vehicles, both civilian and military.

The floodable dock - 50 metres long and 15 metres wide - will enable the ship to deploy the most technically advanced amphibious equipment and vehicles of EU and NATO Navies.

The different areas of cargo securing are accessible through cranes, stern and side ramps, and cargo handling will be managed by internal ramps and elevators.

A fully equipped hospital will also be available onboard, complete with operating rooms, radiology and analysis rooms, a dentist’s office, and patient rooms capable of hosting 27 seriously injured patients (further admissions are possible through duly equipped container modules).

-ends-


And being Italian, it will no doubt mount about 17x 76mm deck guns...




In a low speed post-merge manoeuvring fight, with a high off-boresight 4th generation missile and Helmet Mounted Display, the Super Hornet will be a very difficult opponent for any current Russian fighter, even the Su-27/30
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 28-5-2019 at 06:24 PM


Not quite BUT she does get three.........

3 × Oto Melara 76/62 mm Strales Anti-aircraft guns

3 × Oto Melara KBA 25/80 mm, remotized

2 x Oto Melara ODLS-20 (decoys launchers)

FFBNW 2x8-cell SYLVER A50 VLS for 16 Aster 15 and 30 missiles or 32 CAMM ER missile.

The CAMM count is wrong...... 4 x CAMM fit in each ASTER launcher, same as US launchers........
View user's profile View All Posts By User
ADMK2
Member





Posts: 998
Registered: 11-5-2017
Location: Brisvegas
Member Is Offline


[*] posted on 29-5-2019 at 12:48 AM


Still bloody well armed for an LHD. Makes the 25mm pop-guns attached to the Canberra class look positively anaemic...



In a low speed post-merge manoeuvring fight, with a high off-boresight 4th generation missile and Helmet Mounted Display, the Super Hornet will be a very difficult opponent for any current Russian fighter, even the Su-27/30
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 29-5-2019 at 08:52 AM


Yup!
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 30-5-2019 at 09:09 AM


Thales to supply Mirador Mk 2 for new K 130 corvettes

Richard Scott, London - Jane's Navy International

29 May 2019

Thales is to supply its latest Mirador Mk 2 electro-optical (EO) director for the German Navy’s second batch of K 130 corvettes, the company announced on 24 May.


The original Mirador electro-optical director is already in service on the five batch 1 K130 corvettes. The second batch will receive the all-digital Mirador Mk 2. (Richard Scott/NAVYPIX)

Under contract to the Federal Office of Bundeswehr Equipment, Information Technology and In-Service Support (BAAINBw), Thales will deliver 12 Mirador Mk 2 systems to the K 130 programme. Each of the five new corvettes will be equipped with two Mirador Mk 2 systems for passive surveillance and fire control; the remaining two systems will be used as land-based test and training assets.

The five K 130 corvettes already in service are equipped with the original version of Mirador EO director. The new Mk 2 version introduces digital technology throughout to provide improved sensor performance (to enhance detection, recognition, and identification) and more accurate data tracking.

(157 of 201 words)
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 5-6-2019 at 10:04 PM


France Wants To Retain Its Carrier Edge

Jun 5, 2019

Tony Osborne | Aviation Week & Space Technology

Carrier aviation has been a staple of France’s defense capability since the end of World War II, a symbol of the country’s ability to act independently and provide support for its extensive overseas territories, all while supplying an additional component of the country’s nuclear deterrent.

Now, as the French Navy’s recently refitted flagship, the Charles de Gaulle, is embarked in the Far East with a full complement of aircraft, planners are beginning to mull a new generation of carrier and, crucially, how many might be needed.

Prior to the introduction of the nuclear-powered 42,000-metric-ton Charles de Gaulle in 2001, France had two carriers, Clemenceau and Foch, with one always on standby.

- Future carrier will likely operate a naval version of the Franco-German FCAS
- Charles de Gaulle embarked with largest complement of Rafales

But by replacing them with one ship, critics have argued that the appearance of capability has been somewhat undermined because the ship has not always been available. The air wing, however, has been able to operate from U.S. carriers on several occasions.

France is the only nation that routinely cross-decks its aircraft onto U.S. nuclear-powered carriers. Paris had been looking at closing that gap by developing a second carrier to be a sister ship to the Charles de Gaulle and based on the design of Britain’s Queen Elizabeth-class carriers. Those plans were abandoned in a 2013 white paper.

Studies for the new ship, which will likely be designed around a naval version of the Next-Generation Fighter (NGF), the manned component of the Franco-German Future Combat Air System, began last October, with teams studying the architecture as well as the industrial organization for the ship’s construction.

“It [the carrier] is a strategic capability of our national defense and our navy . . . an efficient and effective capacity. [It is] an ability that we must maintain and renew,” says armed forces minister Florence Parly.

The 18-month-long studies not only are expected to consider French requirements but also those of its European neighbors as the EU strengthens its defense capability. European governments could be invited to participate in a carrier program or put their own aircraft on board. Such cooperation could even extend to the ship’s construction, Parly suggests. This has led to questions about the potential of a European carrier with its operation shared between nations, proposals that garnered interest in Germany.

“This aircraft carrier could serve until the last decades of the 21st century. We cannot afford to design it with a narrow horizon,” Parly explains.


The Charles de Gaulle is currently operating in the Far East with a complement of 30 Dassault Rafales. The ship is expected to be in service until the mid-to-late 2030s. Credit: Seaman Joshua L. Leonard/U.S. Navy

French officials are believed to be in discussions about the potential use of U.S.-developed electromagnetic catapults for the ships. This would enable the launch of smaller, lighter air vehicles such as UAS and so-called remote carriers or loyal wingmen, which are expected to accompany the NGF on its operational mission. Other key decisions to be made will include whether to adopt nuclear or conventional propulsion as well as the size of the ship.

French officials tell Aviation Week that a nuclear carrier needs to refuel its tanks of aviation fuel every 10 days, while a conventional carrier needs to replace its own fuel every four days, a possible hint that the nuclear option may be favored.

The Charles de Gaulle is due to retire around 2040, after 40 years of service. The new ship is expected to enter service in the mid-to-late 2030s, and the two could operate alongside each other for a short period.

The price tag could be as much as €5 billion ($5.6 billion), or even more if it is decided to use nuclear propulsion, senior naval officers told a committee of the French National Assembly in March. A decision on the number of ships needed is expected to be announced in early 2020.

The Charles de Gaulle is continuing a cruise that has taken it through the Mediterranean, into the Indian Ocean and onward to the Far East, a test of the €1.3 billion, 18-month-long midlife refit completed last October that was designed to keep the ship in service through 2038.

Engineers also undertook inspections of the two nuclear reactors, replaced the fuel elements and performed maintenance on the ship’s electrical power plant, propulsion system and steam catapult system.

The carrier also received a new combat system, with modernized networks and radars. The refit included removing the last vestiges of the ship’s association with the Dassault-Breguet Super Etendard, the 1970s-era attack aircraft, which served on the ship until July 2016.

The ship’s aviation facilities are being updated to support the Dassault Rafale M. Thirty are on the current voyage, the largest complement taken to sea yet. The ship has the capacity to carry up to 40 of the fighters, almost the entire complement of the French Navy’s Rafale M fleet of 42. Also onboard are several helicopters and two Northrop Grumman E-2 Hawkeye airborne early warning platforms.
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 6-6-2019 at 09:29 AM


U36 - More Than 5,000 Nautical Miles Under Water

(Source: German Navy; issued June 04, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


The German Navy submarine U36, an U-212A class submarine displacing 1,800 tonnes submerged, returns to her homeport on Friday, after an 8,800 nautical mile cruise during which she sailed 5,000 nautical miles while submerged. (GE Navy photo)

ECKERNFÖRDE, Germany --- Submarine U36 returns to her home port of Eckernförde on Friday, June 7, at 10:00 am from a sea voyage of about five months. During her 136 days absence, the Delta crew participated in several international exercises.

The joint training sessions over the past five months have further strengthened German-Norwegian cooperation. At all levels there was a lively exchange between German and Norwegian soldiers. "The decision to support U36 for the entire period was a complete success, and our cooperation with the Royal Norwegian Navy has further intensified, adding another milestone to the acquisition of new submarines," said Fregattenkapitän (Cmdr.) Timo Cordes (43), Commander 1. Uboot Squadron.

In the British exercise "Joint Warrior," U36 sailed for three weeks without a break and also completed the naval parts of the commander's course. After the maneuver, the crew at FOST ("Flag Officer Sea Training") off Plymouth (England) supported the training of the British Navy.

Afterwards the boat went to the Bay of Biscay to train with the French Navy on submarine hunts, including helicopter missions. At the beginning of May, the Delta crew entered the base of the Royal Norwegian Navy’s main base in Haakonsvern to prepare for the upcoming torpedo firing section. This simulated several torpedo attacks and over a dozen practice torpedoes were launched.

"During our time we have been able to intensify the German - Norwegian co - operation. The Royal Norwegian Navy has received us very well into the submarine community," says the commander of U36, Korvettenkapitan (Lt. Cdr.) Michael Rudat (38). "Bergen has become a second home port for my crew and me," Rudat continued.

Eleven other nations participated in the exercises: Norway, Great Britain, France, Australia, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Turkey, Poland, the USA and the Netherlands. Overall, the submarine U36 has sailed about 8,800 nautical miles (about 40% of the distance around the globe), of which about 5,000 submerged.

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 13-6-2019 at 08:25 PM


PICTURES: Rafale M in marathon carrier deployment

13 June, 2019 SOURCE: FlightGlobal.com BY: Greg Waldron Singapore

Dassault Rafale M fighters operating from the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle are performing well during an epic long-range deployment.

FlightGlobal visited the ship in Singapore three months into a cruise that has included the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean and finally the Straits of Malacca.

The carrier's air wing comprises 20 fixed-wing assets: 18 Rafale Ms and a pair of Northrop Grumman E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning and control system aircraft. In addition, the vessel carries three Airbus Helicopters AS365 Dauphin helicopters. A frigate in the French strike group also carries an NH Industries NH90 anti-submarine warfare helicopter.


The USS Stennis (left) and Charles de Gaulle (right), with escorts
US Navy

Typically, the carrier's air wing includes 24 Rafales divided into two squadrons, but six aircraft remained in France for upgrade work. Using a pair of steam catapults, the ship can launch one aircraft per minute.

Service reliability for the Rafales is 95%, says the Charles de Gaulle's captain, Marc-Antoine de Saint Germain.

"This ship and Rafale can work far away from France with a maximum of autonomy and without a huge logistical link," he says. "We have many spare parts and many repair shops aboard. This ship is really a success for this purpose...

Sustainability is very good. We have one month before returning to France. I hope we maintain this level of serviceability."


Rafale Ms seen from the navigation bridge
Greg Waldron/FlightGlobal

The nuclear-powered carrier is fresh out of a major upgrade completed in September 2018. This focused on better resistance to cyberattack and electronic warfare. The voyage is only the second time the Charles de Gaulle has deployed with a fighter element comprising entirely Rafales, following the retirement of the French navy's last Dassault Super Etendard Modernise platforms in 2016.

"Mission Clemenceau, our current deployment, is a very important effort for France," says task force commander Rear Admiral Olivier Lebas.


The bow catapult
Greg Waldron/FlightGlobal

“As a carrier strike group we have operated in areas of strategic interest through which flows a large percentage of shipping on which a large part of world economy relies.”

In the Red Sea, the ship rendezvoused with the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Stennis, so that the pair’s air wings could conduct dissimilar air combat training. Rafale Ms conducted touch-and-go landings aboard the US vessel, and conducted air-to-air refuelling training with Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornets.

The carrier also participated in the annual Varuna naval exercise with the Indian navy off the coast of Goa. This saw the Charles de Gaulle operate with the INS Vikramaditya, which operates RAC MiG-29K fighters.


A Rafale M and E-2C Hawkeye on the stern of the ship
Greg Waldron/FlightGlobal

While the focus of the Varuna manoeuvres was interoperability, it also offered New Delhi the opportunity to observe the Rafale M in action. The French type is contending against the Super Hornet for a 57-aircraft Indian navy requirement.

Subsequently, the Charles de Gaulle exercised with ships from other nations in the Bay of Bengal. These included the JS Izumo, a Japanese helicopter carrier that is eventually set to receive Lockheed Martin F-35B fighters.

Following its current port call, the French strike group will hold exercises with Singapore's air force and navy, prior to a month-long voyage back to its home port of Toulon, via the Indian Ocean.

The Charles de Gaulle’s air wing made headlines in the region on 20 May, when seven Rafale Ms were forced to divert to Banda Aceh, instead of recovering on the ship, which was then involved in an exercise 54nm (100km) off the island of Sumatra.


The Charles de Gaulle at dockside in Singapore
Greg Waldron/FlightGlobal

De Saint Germain says conditions became very cloudy and windy while the fighters were still airborne, and that it is standard procedure to have a diversion airfield in case of bad weather or an issue aboard the ship.

"This is the normal way to operate and to ensure that, in the worst case, there is no ejection of the pilots. It was not a concern, but it took a bit of energy to recover them. We are trained for it."

The weather cleared, and the fighters returned after 10h on the ground.

Speaking aboard the Charles de Gaulle, French ambassador to Singapore Marc Abensour noted the close defence aerospace links between France and Singapore. The air forces of both countries now operate the Airbus Defence & Space A330 multi-role tanker/transport, and both also employ variants of Airbus Helicopters' Super Puma family. Singapore also operates its Leonardo M-346 advanced jet trainers from Cazaux air base in southwest France.
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 19-6-2019 at 02:45 PM


F125 "Baden-Württemberg": Germany's Most Modern Frigate Entered Service

(Source: ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems; issued June 17, 2019)


After having been originally refused by the German Navy for a series of significant flaws, the first F125 new-generation frigate, optimized for long-range deployments, has now been commissioned into the German Navy. (TKMS photo)

On 17 June 2019, the F125 "Baden-Württemberg" was officially commissioned in a ceremony in the presence of German Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen. The German Navy now has in service the most modern and powerful frigate which was ever built in Germany. "Baden-Württemberg" was built by ARGE F125 with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems as lead company.

The newly designed class F125 ships, with their highly complex systems and approximately 28,000 sensors, have a very high degree of automation, which makes it possible to halve the crew size in comparison to previous German frigate classes. The ships can remain in their operational area for up to two years. This way, the number of the usually very long transits can be significantly reduced. The F125 "Baden-Württemberg" is the first ship worldwide to successfully implement the intensive use concept.

Next to the traditional tasks of national and alliance defense, the ships are designed for conflict prevention, crisis management and intervention and stabilization operations in the international arena. In addition to the ability to fight offshore and onshore targets, they also have anti-aircraft systems and helicopters specially equipped for submarine hunting.

The contract for the construction of the four frigates became effective in June 2007. The concept, design and a detailed design phase followed. Around 90 percent of the highly complex systems on board the F125 were specially developed for this new class of ships. Due to this high complexity and the related, different challenges as well as the further modular development of the ship during the project, "Baden-Württemberg" was delivered about 3 years after the contractually agreed date.

The second class F125 ship, the "Nordrhein-Westfalen" ("North Rhine-Westphalia"), will be ready to be handed over to the customer in 2019. The handing over of the 3rd and 4th ship is planned to take place successively within the next 2 years.

The ARGE F125 consortium comprises ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems as the lead company and Fr. Lürssen Werft in Bremen. The pre-fitted bow sections are being manufactured at the shipyards of the Lürssen Group in Bremen and Wolgast. Construction of the stern sections, the joining of the two sections and further fitting out was being carried out at Blohm+Voss Shipyards in Hamburg under the leadership of ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems.

Key data for the F125:
-- Length: 149 m
-- Width: 18 m
-- Maximum speed: >26 knots
-- Displacement: approx. 7,000 t
-- Crew: max. 190 (of which up to 120 regular crew members)

With around 6,000 employees, ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems is one of the world's leading marine companies and a systems provider in submarine and surface shipbuilding as well as maritime electronics and security technology. Over 180 years of history and the constant pursuit of improvements are the basis for the company's success in constantly setting new standards.

ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems offers customized solutions for highly complex challenges in a changing world.

Since 1875, the northern German group of companies, Lürssen, has been renown worldwide for the highest product quality as well as innovative technologies in yacht and naval shipbuilding.

This family-owned company, based in Bremen-Vegesack, specialises in the design and manufacture of yachts, marine and coastguard vessels. With six highly specialised production sites in Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein, the family company will continue to rely on the proven shipbuilding traditions of North German shipyards.

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
bug2
Member





Posts: 18438
Registered: 13-8-2017
Location: Perth
Member Is Online


[*] posted on 26-6-2019 at 09:43 AM


End of Mission for the Saphir ... Waiting for the Suffren

(Source: French Armed Forces Ministry; issued June 24, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)

PARIS --- After 35 years of service, the Saphir nuclear attack submarine (Sous-marin Nucléaire d’Attaque – SNA – in French) is the first of six Rubis-class SNAs that will be retired from active service beginning in the end of July 2019.

The 2019-2025 Military Program Law ensures the renewal of the Rubis-class nuclear attack submarines by Suffren-class boats, the first of which will be officially launched in Cherbourg on July 12, 2019.

SNA are true instruments of sovereign power, enduring and discreet. Their missions are varied: support for nuclear deterrence, protection of the carrier air group, intelligence gathering, submarine warfare.

Sapphire is the second of six French Rubis-class boats. Laid down in Cherbourg on September 1, 1979, she was christened Saphir (Sapphire) two years later, and Commander Roy took command of the first crew on June 26, 1982.

Since July 6, 1984, when it was commissioned into active service, Saphir has traveled over 1,200,000 nautical miles, spent more than 120,000 hours (more than 13 years) submerged, and made a hundred port calls.

Faithful to the memory of her glorious homonyms of the two world wars, Saphir has taken part in many missions, from the Indian Ocean to the Caribbean and from the Far North to the South American coasts. Among its more emblematic missions were Operations Balbuzard in 1993, Kotor in 1999, and Harmattan in 2011.

Commanded today by Commander Frenais de Coutard, the Saphir is currently sailing to Cherbourg, where she will be dismantled. Disarmament operations will be carried out under the control of the Directorate General of Armaments (DGA).

The first of the new-generation attack submarines, the Suffren, will be delivered to the French Navy in 2020. Her official launch on July 12 marks the end of the construction period and is the last step before the beginning of the test phase.

A complex program whose project management is ensured by the DGA and the CEA (the French atomic energy commission), with Naval Group and Areva-TA as prime contractors, it demonstrates France’s industrial know-how.

With the Suffren-type boats, France will have more enduring, more discreet and more modern submarines, among the most powerful in the world. In addition to the traditional missions assigned to the SNAs, they will also be able to perform strikes against ground targets, and will be optimized for supporting special forces.

Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly said "In a few days, a historic torch-passing will take place, but beyond the symbolism, it is all the French excellence which is demonstrated by these two events: first an SNA, which for decades will never fail in its mission, followed by the arrival of a technological gem that will allow France to keep its status and its rank of military power. I congratulate all submariners of Saphir, past and present, for their professionalism commands our admiration."

The first crew, whose core has been formed in parallel to the construction phase, will be formally created on July 12, to prepare for sea trials in preparation for future operations.

In service until the 2060s, Suffren-type SNAs will be one of this century’s major programs for our defense.

-ends-
View user's profile View All Posts By User
 Pages:  1  2    4    6

  Go To Top

Powered by XMB 1.9.11
XMB Forum Software © 2001-2017 The XMB Group
[Queries: 16] [PHP: 84.7% - SQL: 15.3%]