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Author: Subject: Future Submarines, part 57
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[*] posted on 23-11-2019 at 12:37 PM


Submarine Riachuelo Performs Static Immersion Test

(Source: Brazilian Navy; issued Nov. 21, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


Riachuelo, the first of four Scorpène-class diesel-electric submarines being built for the Brazilian Navy, heads to sea from the Itaguaí Naval Complex for her first static immersion tests. (Brazil Navy photo)

The submarine Riachuelo, the first of four diesel-electric propulsion submarines under construction under the Submarine Development Program (PROSUB), was successfully subjected to a static immersion test on November 20, a decisive milestone for the assessment of her stability at sea.

The test was carried out in the southern area of Itacuruçá Island, about 4 nautical miles from the Itaguaí Naval Complex, in Sepetiba Bay, where a buoy was installed on the sea bottom to which the submarine remained tied until her return to the surface.

Static immersion of the “Riachuelo” consisted of the controlled intake of water into the submarine's ballast tanks until she completely submerged, without the use of its propulsion. The procedure was designed to ensure not only the sealing and longitudinal and transverse stability of the submarine when submerged, but also to record the volume of water that was admitted to the internal trim and trim tanks. These values were used to accurately determine the water displacement of Riachuelo when submerged.

Static immersion was the first in a series of sea acceptance tests, which will be conducted from December this year. The purpose of the assessments is to verify the performance of the submarine's platform, equipment and systems, both on and offshore, to be conducted by the receiving crew, under the supervision of the Nuclear Propulsion Submarine Development Program General Coordination and the responsibility of Itaguaí Construções Navais (ICN) / Naval Group.

The final step will be the launch of F21 torpedoes and SM-39 submarine-launched anti-ship missiles to test the effectiveness of the combat system.

Riachuelo's operational environment tests represent another relevant step for the advancement of PROSUB, a program that adheres to the National Defense Strategy. By contributing to the strengthening of the Brazilian naval power, PROSUB stimulates the development of the national industrial park, also asserting the high technological capacity absorbed by the Navy and ICN in the construction of high technology submarines.

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[*] posted on 29-11-2019 at 09:17 PM


Naval Group outlines industrial commitment in Netherlands sub competition

Andrew MacDonald, Singapore - Jane's Defence Weekly

29 November 2019

French shipbuilder Naval Group detailed more of its strategy for competing in the Netherlands’ Walrus submarine replacement programme at the NIDV Exhibition Defence & Security (NEDS) conference on 28 November, including a commitment to “full submarine intellectual property (IP) and knowledge-sharing” with Dutch industry.

As well as the transfer of IP, the strategy will centre around a design authority and local manufacturer in the Netherlands, which Naval Group estimates would create more than 2,000 new jobs.

The company, which announced a partnership with Dutch maritime service provider Royal IHC in February, also revealed a new teaming with Contour, a supplier of simulation and training solutions to the Netherlands Ministry of Defence.

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[*] posted on 30-11-2019 at 12:34 PM


Navantia teams up with Huisman for Dutch sub contract

David Ing, Madrid - Jane's Navy International

29 November 2019

Spanish state-owned shipbuilder Navantia has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) in Rotterdam with local company Huisman Equipment to compete for the Royal Netherlands Navy’s Walrus-class submarine replacement programme.

The company said the both firms had agreed to look at setting up construction and assembly lines in the Netherlands for a submarine that will be based on Navantia’s own S-80 design.

Navantia is currently building four S-80 vessels for the Spanish Navy, with the first due to be delivered by about late 2022 from its Cartagena yards.

The shipbuilder said it is well prepared, with “state-of-the-art engineering and management tools to support the construction in other countries, such as the Netherlands”.

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[*] posted on 17-12-2019 at 09:39 AM


Defense Wants Four New Submarines

(Source: Dutch Ministry of Defence; issued Dec. 13, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


The Dutch Cabinet on Friday short-listed three companies to compete to replace its four new Walrus-class submarines, but delayed the decision to 2021 and contract signature to 2022. Spain’s Navantia has been eliminated. (Dutch MoD photo)

The Ministry of Defense wants to acquire four new submarines, and three companies are competing to build them, according to the so-called “B letter” that State Secretary Visser sent to the House today.

Out of the four previously selected candidate yards, the Spanish company Navantia has now dropped out, leaving French Naval Group, Saab Kockums (Sweden) and ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems from Germany in the competition.

Defense has opted for a long range, versatile, conventionally-powered submarine. The future four new boats must be able to operate for a long time, unseen and far away from the home base. Since none of the candidate yards came forward as the unanimous winner in the survey, Defense will continue to compete with Naval Group, Saab Kockums and TKMS.

In the next phase, the requirements, award criteria and weighting factors will be determined, based on factors such as best boat for the best price, risk management and the elaboration of national security interests and strategic autonomy.

For the design, construction and later maintenance, the Netherlands attaches great importance to the involvement of the Dutch naval construction cluster, including SMEs and knowledge institutes. "The Dutch naval construction sector must obtain the best possible position in the supply chains of foreign shipyards,” Visser said. “A good position as a supplier offers Dutch companies and knowledge institutes the opportunity to increase their own knowledge and skills, from which the Defense organization can also benefit.”

The Importance of Submarines

Submarines are of direct importance for the seafaring trade nation of the Netherlands. The most important characteristic is that they are almost impossible to find under water. This makes the submarine extremely suitable for protecting the maritime supply lanes, naval vessels and maritime infrastructure. This also applies to detecting and eliminating enemy ships, depositing and picking up special forces and gathering, analyzing and sharing intelligence.

"This maritime power makes the submarine one of our most important weapon systems. The Dutch submarine service is highly regarded worldwide with the Walrus class. That is why the Netherlands wants to replace these boats now that the end of their life is approaching. NATO is also pushing for this. Submarines are an important and much-needed niche capacity. "

Schedule

The current submarines (Walrus class) have been in service with the navy since the 1990s, and will reach the end of their service life in about ten years. The project involves more than 2.5 billion euros. According to the current schedule, a contract must be signed in 2022 with one of the shipyards. Ultimately, the new submarines must have completely replaced the current Walrus class in 2031.

(ends)

Dutch Submarine Procurement Process Enters Next Phase with Saab and Damen As One of the Selected Contenders

(Source: Saab; issued Dec. 13, 2019)

The Dutch cabinet announced today that Saab and Damen, together with two other contenders will continue in the next phase for the replacement of the Walrus-class submarines (WRES), aiming at the procurement of four submarines.

Saab and Damen Shipyards are awaiting further information from the Netherlands on how the process will proceed.

Saab and Damen have a strong offer, which fits the operational requirements of the Royal Netherlands Navy and the Dutch Defense Industrial Strategy (DIS). If selected, the Saab Damen offer would encompass export opportunities.

Saab and Dutch shipbuilder Damen Shipyards Group have joined forces to develop an expeditionary submarine for the Netherland´s Walrus Replacement Programme. The Expeditionary Submarine builds on the capabilities of the Swedish A26 and the knowledge and skills within the Dutch naval shipbuilding.

Furthermore, it puts into practice the experience of the Swedish designed Collins-class submarine in-service with the Australian Navy.

Saab serves the global market with world-leading products, services and solutions within military defence and civil security. Saab has operations and employees on all continents around the world. Through innovative, collaborative and pragmatic thinking, Saab develops, adopts and improves new technology to meet customers’ changing needs.

(ends)

The Netherlands Selects Naval Group as One of the Shortlisted Companies for the Next Phase of the Submarine Replacement Program.

(Source: Naval Group; issued Dec. 13, 2019)

THE HAGUE --- The Netherlands Ministry of Defence (MOD) has selected Naval Group to enter the next phase in the selection process for the Submarine Replacement programme.

On December 13th 2019, the Netherlands MOD announced that three parties are invited to enter the next phase of the Netherlands Submarine Replacement programme. Naval Group is thankful to be one of the designers selected for this strategic programme.

Naval Group looks forward to entering an in-depth technical cooperation with DMO to conduct this joint-design phase in close association with the involved stakeholders. The Group strongly believes that the envisaged operational profile is very much in line with the mission capabilities of the conventionally powered Barracuda family submarine.

Naval Group thankfully acknowledges this new phase, which will allow the joint in-depth design process to be translated into a full industrial solution, optimizing operational and technical capabilities through the long-term involvement of the Dutch maritime ecosystem.

Naval Group and Royal IHC ready for future industrial steps

With a proven track-record of knowledge sharing and industrial cooperation, Naval Group has already been honored to form a strong partnership with Royal IHC, a company specialized in complex systems integration and subsea systems. The Group is thankful for Royal IHC’s trust in its submarine design and knowledge sharing capacities.

To reinforce this existing bond, numerous industrial partners and knowledge institutes will be closely associated and consulted at every major design decision point to make sure that the future submarine programme builds up and maintains full Dutch autonomy over the complete submarine lifecycle.

Dave Vander Heyde, CEO Royal IHC: “Building a large Dutch submarine alliance with industry and knowledge institutes in the Netherlands is essential for strengthening the Netherlands Defense Technology & Industrial base. By transferring Naval Groups knowledge to MoD, Royal IHC and other partners, the Netherlands will be able to carry out its core tasks autonomously. We look forward to further intensify our cooperation with Naval Group, and invite other Dutch companies to join!”

Naval Group is a European leader in naval defence. As an international high-tech company, group designs, builds and supports submarines and surface ships. It also supplies services to shipyards and naval bases. The group reports revenues of €3.6 billion and has a workforce of 14,860 (data for 2018).

Royal IHC enables its customers to execute complex projects from sea level to ocean floor in the most challenging of maritime environments. From our head office in the Netherlands and with 3,300 employees working from sites and offices on a global basis, we are able to ensure a local presence and support on every continent.

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[*] posted on 18-12-2019 at 05:00 PM


One bidder out, three remain in Dutch race to replace Walrus subs

By: Sebastian Sprenger   10 hours ago


The Dutch Walrus-class submarine Bruinvis is docked in the port of Tallinn, Estonia, on Oct. 18, 2014. The Royal Netherlands Navy plans to replace the four-ship series in a hotly contested contract competition. (Pjotr Mahhonin/Wikimedia)

COLOGNE, Germany — The Dutch Defence Ministry has dropped shipbuilder Navantia from the pool of bidders for the multibillion-dollar Walrus submarine-replacement program, announcing that additional negotiations will follow with the remaining three contenders.

In a letter to parliament on Friday, State Secretary for Defence Barbara Visser laid out the reasons why the Spanish company was eliminated, adding that the government will award a contract for four boats in 2022 with either Naval Group, Thyssenkrupp Marine Systems or Saab-Kockums.

The announcement comes after previous expectations that the government would pick a vendor in the spring of 2019. Since then, however, a new national defense-industry strategy has upped the expectation of including domestic naval companies in the new Walrus supply network to the greatest extent possible.

Navantia failed to make the cut on the industrial-cooperation front, according to Visser’s missive to lawmakers, known as a B-Letter in local military-acquisition speak. In other words, the Netherlands is “uncertain” cooperation with Spain would work out and that it would offer fewer touchpoints compared with the governments of the other three bidders — France, Germany and Sweden.

To some, the letter looks like the Dutch government is simply playing for time.

“I can only conclude that all relevant actors within government do not agree yet on the choice to be made,” Dick Zandee, a senior researcher with the The Hague-based Clingendael Institute, said of the missive. “After more than a year of delaying the B-Letter, I would describe this as a testimonium paupertatis.”

At the same time, he added, the government may deliberately drag three bidders further into the source selection to increase its leverage on price, schedule and risk.

“In short, a new delaying procedure — this is the essence of the B-Letter,” Zandee said.

The Dutch government arrived at the desired number of four boats based on NATO’s availability requirements, Visser wrote to lawmakers. The alliance would expect three submarines in the event of a large-scale deployment: two within 30 days and one within six months.
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[*] posted on 20-12-2019 at 04:19 PM


Navantia Completes the Pressure Hull of S81 ‘Isaac Peral’

(Source: Navantia; issued Dec. 18, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)


After having been lengthened by 7 meters to restore its buoyancy, Spain’s Navantia shipyard has closed the pressure hull of its first S-80 submarine, the S-81 ‘Isaac Peral,’ now due to be re-launched in October 2020. (Navantia photo)

The Cartagena Shipyard this morning hosted the formal event corresponding to the closure of the pressure hull of the submarine S81 ‘Isaac Peral’, after the final section of the boat was added to the hull.

The Deputy Director General of Programs of the DGAM, General Salvador Álvarez Pascual; the Chief of the Arsenal of Cartagena, Vice Admiral Aniceto Rosique Nieto; the Director of Engineering and Construction of the Navy, Vice Admiral Manuel Martínez Ruiz; the chief of the Logistics Division of the General Staff of the Spanish Navy, Admiral Gonzalo Sanz Alisedo; the chief of the Naval Systems Department of the DGAM, Nicolás Lapique Martín, and the director of the S80 Program, Javier del Corral.

On behalf of Navantia, the Director of Operations and Businesses, Gonzalo Mateo Guerrero-Alcázar; the Director of the Shipyard and the S80 Program, Agustín Álvarez Blanco; the Director of Navantia Sistemas, Vicente Santamaría Calvario, and the head of the S80 Program Office, Ignacio Núñez.

The event began with a brief tour of the submarine yard, during which the progress of the construction of both submarines S81 and S82, located in stands number 1 and 2, was demonstrated.

The pressure hull of the future Spanish Navy submarine S81 ‘Isaac Peral’ was closed on Dec. 18 at Navantia’s Cartagena shipyard.

Followed a brief presentation of the submarine's construction process, after which the Director of the Cartagena Shipyard and the Deputy Director General of Programs of the DGAM addressed a few words to those present in which they highlighted the importance of the act and the submarine program S80.

The closure of the pressure hull is a fundamental milestone in the construction of a submarine since it thus becomes a complete vessel. Previously, all the main modules had been completed and the sections had been fitted out to a high degree of completion. The next step is the completion of the weapons work and the beginning of the testing stage.

This milestone represents a phase change in the construction. Work on the submarine is now focused on its launching, for which a formal and regulated process is followed based on achieving safety milestones. This process begins with the powering-up milestone, in which the submarine begins to receive electric power; it continues with the milestone of battery boarding, in which the capability for autonomous power generation is demonstrated, and culminates with the launch, in which the submarine moves to the armament dock for the beginning of the port tests.

The planned date for launching is October 2020.

The S80 is the most advanced conventional submarine in the world. Its main features are:

-- Length: 80.81 m
-- Beam: 11.68 m
-- Diameter: 7,30 m diameter
-- Displacement surface / submerged: 2,695 t / 2,965 t
-- Accommodation: 32 crew + 8 special forces
-- Conventional long-endurance submarine with air-independent propulsion
-- Extremely low acoustic signature
-- Excellent maneuverability at low speed
-- Highly-automated systems
-- Next-generation combat system
-- Air independent propulsion system (AIP) - State of the art
-- Integrated, highly complex design.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: The Dec. 18 ceremony marks the completion of a long process to extend the submarine’s hull so to correct its original design, as during initial trials in 2013 it was unable to resurface after diving.
Navantia identified the flaw and, after the Spanish defense ministry called in General Dynamics Electric Boat to consult, determined that the problem was due to excess weight of up to 100 tonnes having been added during construction.
The preferred solution was to lengthen the hull by 7 meters, increasing dived displacement by 75 tons, and thereby restoring – in theory - the boat’s buoyancy. The launch of the rebuilt submarine is now planned for October 2020.
The S81 was originally due to be delivered in 2015, and but this is unlikely to happen before 2021.)

Click here for Navantia’s press release in English.

https://www.navantia.es/en/news/press-releases/navantia-clos...

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[*] posted on 20-12-2019 at 04:20 PM


Suffren: Nuclear Power Plant of the First Barracuda-Class Nuclear Attack Submarine in Turned On

(Source: French Atomic Energy Commission; issued Dec. 18, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)

After the launch of the Suffren on July 12 in the presence of the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron, a new stage was reached with the divergence of the reactor on December 17, 2019, a prelude to the first sea trials before its delivery in 2020.

Divergence consists in triggering, for the first time, a controlled nuclear reaction in the heart.

As part of the Barracuda submarine program led by the French Armaments Directorate (DGA), Suffren’s nuclear boiler was designed under the responsibility of the CEA's Directorate of Military Applications (DAM). The project was led by the nuclear propulsion department of the DAM, which relied on the CEA's nuclear power department.

Project management was entrusted to TechnicAtome, designer of the boiler room, and Naval Group was responsible for the construction of the pressure fixtures and the integration of the nuclear boiler on board the Barracuda.

The success of taking this step is the result of teamwork made possible also by the commitment of the very large number of companies which are participating in this project. It illustrates the capacity of the country (State agencies and industry) to carry out complex nuclear reactor projects.

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[*] posted on 20-12-2019 at 10:03 PM


Argentina eyes Norwegian SSKs and plans to modernise military

Jose Higuera, Santiago - Jane's Defence Weekly

20 December 2019

Argentina is considering buying diesel-electric submarines (SSKs) from Norway to bolster its navy’s operational submarine force, which is currently reduced to ARA Salta , a worn-out German-built U209-1200 boat that cannot fully submerse and is used only for training.

The Argentine Navy hopes to secure the procurement of at least two 1,150-tonne Ula-class diesel-electric submarines (UBK-210 Type design) from Thyssen, according to local military sources in Buenos Aires.

The two submarines are part of a six-boat Norwegian force completed and commissioned between 1989 and 1992.

Until 2018, Argentina had three SSKs, including two 2,300-tonne German-built TR-1700 type boats. But one of them, ARA San Juan , was lost at sea with all 44 hands in the South Atlantic late that year, when an onboard explosion made the boat dive out of control until its hull collapsed.

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[*] posted on 24-12-2019 at 02:10 PM


Turkey’s First-Generation Submarine Piri Reis Hits the Seas (excerpt)

(Source: Hurriyet Daily News; published Dec. 22, 2019)


Turkey on Sunday launched the first of six Type 214 diesel-electric submarines, Piri Reis, and made the first weld on the fifth boat; they are built in Golcuk under license from Germany’s TKMS. (Twitter photo)

KOCAELİ, Turkey --- Turkey’s first Type 214 class submarine TCG Piri Reis hit the seas on Dec. 22 with a ceremony held in the northwestern province of Kocaeli’s Gölcük district.

“Today, we gathered here for the docking of Piri Reis. As of 2020, a submarine will go into service each year. By 2027, all six of our submarines will be at our seas for service,” President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said during a speech at the ceremony. “Our aim is to promptly actualize our national submarine project.”

During the ceremony, the first weld of TCG Seydi Ali Reis was also carried out.

TCG Piri Reis, the first vessel of Turkey’s New Type Submarine Project, is planned to start operating in 2020. The project, carried out by the Undersecretariat for Defence Industries, will add a total of six vessels to the Turkish Navy’s inventory.

The Type 214 class vessels are regarded as a first for the Turkish Navy due to its air-independent propulsion characteristics brought by their fuel cell technology. The vessels also can deploy heavyweight torpedoes and anti-ship missiles and lay mines against targets, both at sea and on the ground.

#Turkey’s first domestically produced submarine Piri Reis launched at official ceremony in Gölcük, center of the Turkish Navy.
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[*] posted on 28-12-2019 at 03:36 PM


Russian Shipbuilders Float Out First Project 885M Serial-Produced Nuclear-Powered Sub

(Source: TASS; published Dec. 25, 2019)


Novosibirsk, floated out at the Sevmash shipyard on Christmas Day, is the first of a new class of modernized Yasen-M nuclear attack submarines; the first of class Kazan os undergoing sea trials. (Sevmash photo)

SEVERODVINSK, Russia --- The Sevmash Shipyard in Severodvinsk in the northern Arkhangelsk Region has floated out the Project 885M Yasen-M first serial-produced nuclear-powered submarine Novosibirsk.

The Russian Navy currently operates the Project 885 Yasen nuclear-powered submarine Severodvinsk. The Project 885M Yasen-M lead submarine Kazan is undergoing trials. The sub is set to enter service in 2020.

The Project 885 and 885M nuclear-powered subs carry Kalibr-PL and/or Oniks cruise missiles. Eventually, they will get Tsirkon hypersonic missiles. The Sevmash Shipyard (part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation) is currently building six Project 885M nuclear-powered submarines. In 2019, the Shipyard signed a contract on building two more submarines of this Project.

(ends)

Sevmash Floats Novosibirsk Nuclear-Powered Submarine

(Source: Sevmash; issued Dec. 25, 2019)

(Unofficial translation by Defense-Aerospace.com)

On December 25, JSC PO Sevmash held a solemn ceremony for the Launch of the Fourth-Generation Nuclear Submarine Cruiser ‘Novosibirsk’

The serial ship "Novosibirsk" (project "Ash-M") was laid down at Sevmash on July 26, 2013 in the main slipway workshop of the plant. The nuclear submarine is being built according to a modernized project, which is associated with the replacement of the base of electronic equipment complexes, including the transition to Russian-made equipment and materials.

At the current pace of development of scientific and technological progress, the aging of the basic electronic equipment occurs within 4-5 years. On the modernized ship, digital computing will be used for the main electronic subsystems and equipment, developed as part of the state program "Integration - CBT".

Director General Sergey Voronko, on behalf of the Director General of JSC "PO" Sevmash "Mikhail Budnichenko, congratulated those present with the exit of the submarine from the boathouse. He noted that the anniversary year for the enterprise ends with a significant event and expressed confidence that, after further work at the company’s outfitting wharf, complete trials will be will be successfully completed in 2020.

As the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Admiral Nikolai Evmenov, said, “the strategic and multipurpose nuclear boats that the Navy is equipped with embody the best scientific achievements in the field of domestic submarine shipbuilding.” In his speech, the commander of the White Sea Naval Base, Konstantin Kabantsov, emphasized that “Novosibirsk is a modern warship that meets all the requirements of a naval war and has unique combat capabilities. The boats of this series are capable of solving a wide range of tasks to defeat underwater, surface and ground targets."

The participants were also congratulated by Vladimir Dorofeev, Director General of the Malachite SPMBM, Alexey Alsufyev, First Deputy Governor of the Arkhangelsk Region, and Vasily Smirnov, Deputy Governor of the Novosibirsk Region.

A symbolic start to the movement of the ship from the boathouse was given by the captain of the 2nd rank captain Maxim Shpirko, crew commander of the Novosibirsk submarine, who smashed a bottle against the side of the nuclear submarine. The clergy consecrated the cruiser.

At a speed of about one meter per minute on a slipway train, the ship began to move toward the open gates of the workshop, and then into the pool of the enterprise.

BACKGROUND:

The Novosibirsk submarine is a multi-purpose submarine of the Ash project, designed by the Malachite Saint-Petersburg Marine Engineering Bureau. The project applied many technical solutions that had not previously been used in domestic underwater shipbuilding. Boats of this series will become the embodiment and concentration of unique latest Russian developments in the field of military weapons, weapons, technical and electronic complexes, and main power plants.

The crew of the Novosibirsk submarine underwent comprehensive training at the training center of the Navy and is ready to master the latest technology and weapons.

The ship bears the name of Russia’s largest center of academic science - the city of Novosibirsk. According to the Naval Doctrine of the Russian Federation, in the future, submarines of the Yasen-M project, which are being built in a large series, will become the main multipurpose nuclear submarines of Russia.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: Russia’s RT news reported that the Novosibirsk, which is expected to join the ranks of the Russian Navy next year, is the first of a series of submarines of the Yasen-M class.
The first Yasen-M submarine, the Kazan, is still undergoing naval trials and is expected to also join the Russian Navy in 2020. Four more submarines of the type are under construction, and at least two more are expected to be laid down later – presumably next year.)


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[*] posted on 7-1-2020 at 04:51 PM


The 2020s Will Change the World Submarine Balance (excerpt)

(Source: Forbes magazine; posted Jan 5, 2020)

By H I Sutton

The new decade will see seismic shifts in the world of underwater warfare. I believe that several trends will converge to change the world submarine balance. Reflecting on the decade we've emerged from, we can see that the writing is already on the wall.

Although many of the key submarines have already been designed or built, it is the next 10 years when things will shift. This is largely because there was a period of slow development following the Cold War. Successive defense cuts and a focus on low-intensity land conflicts meant that submarines were under-invested in. And many submarine building programs were plagued by delays and small orders. Now finally it feels like we are on the cusp of something new.

Russian Navy Yasen Class Submarine

Russia's massive effort to modernize its submarine fleet, for many years undernourished, will finally bear fruit. They are already operating more assertively in NATO areas. By 2030 most will be much more modern designs, such as the Borei and Yasen classes which are currently entering service. Some may even be the next-generation Laika design.

Weapons are where we will see the largest Russian shift. President Putin’s drive for super-weapons includes the Zircon hypersonic cruise missile and Poseidon mega torpedo. More formally described as an Intercontinental Nuclear-Powered Nuclear-Armed Autonomous Torpedo, Poseidon is an entirely new class of nuclear weapon. It may steer NATO submarine thinking in the coming years.

The submarine outlook for China is less clear. Although Chinese Navy submarines have been improving, the pace of change is less visible that in their massive warship building program. Possibly the greater influence of China will be in their exports. Increasingly China is exporting relatively large quantities of AIP (Air-Independent Power) submarines. Customers include Pakistan and Thailand. (end of excerpt)

Click here for the full story, on the Forbes website.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/hisutton/2020/01/05/the-2020s-w...

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[*] posted on 11-1-2020 at 01:05 PM


Peru starts submarine Antofagasta modernisation

Alejandro Sanchez, Washington, DC - Jane's Defence Weekly

10 January 2020

The Peruvian state-run shipyard Servicios Industriales de la Marina (SIMA) commenced the modernisation process of BAP Antofagasta (SS-32), one of the Peruvian Navy’s Type 209/1200 diesel-electric submarines, the service announced in late December.

The Peruvian Navy is carrying out a programme to extend the operational life of its four Type 209/1200 diesel-electric subs for at least another decade.

Work on the first sub, BAP Chipana (SS-34), commenced in December 2017, and the navy said it expects Chipana to return to service by the last trimester of 2020.

As it starts modernising the 209s, Lima is negotiating the acquisition of two used submarines from the Brazilian Navy.

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[*] posted on 14-1-2020 at 05:25 PM
Print Email Facebook Twitter More Defence Department considered walking away from $50 billion French submarine deal


https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-14/audit-office-critical...

Quote:
Defence secretly considered walking away from the $50 billion French submarine deal during protracted and at times bitter contract negotiations, and started drawing up contingency plans for the new fleet.

The revelations are contained in a new report by the auditor-general which also confirms the program is running nine months late and that Defence is unable to show whether the $396 million spent so far has been "fully effective".

According to the report, the Federal Government's handpicked advisory group told Defence in 2018 to "consider alternatives to the current plan", when negotiations over a key contract appeared to be breaking down.

The Commonwealth and Naval Group, chosen to build Australia's future submarines, were at loggerheads over the Strategic Partnering Agreement, which would provide a framework for the complex and costly project.

Behind the scenes, the Naval Shipbuilding Advisory Board told Defence to start drawing up alternatives should the negotiations fail.

According to the auditors, Defence began examining whether it could extend the life of the existing Collins class submarines and "the time this would allow to develop a new acquisition strategy for the Future Submarine if necessary".

Concerns were so great that the board asked Defence to consider "whether program risks outweighed the benefits of proceeding" and questioned whether it was still in the national interest to go ahead with the project.

The Strategic Partnering Agreement was eventually signed, with much fanfare, in early 2019 and notably, it gives future governments the ability to walk away from the project if it's delayed or fails to deliver what it promised.

Already, two key milestones have been missed and work on the design phase is nine months behind schedule.

In the report, Defence expressed a "deepening concern over a number of matters", which in its view "were a risk to the Future Submarine Program".

Opposition defence spokesman Richard Marles said the report was "deeply concerning".

"On all three measures of this program — on time of delivery, on the cost of the project, and on the amount of Australian content — the numbers are all going the wrong way," he told the ABC.

Crossbench senator Rex Patrick, who is a former submariner, said Defence needed a "fallback" plan if the project continued to face delays.

"The alarm bells are ringing," Senator Patrick said.

"If the Minister is not hearing them they need to be turned up.

"Defence's view that they can recover the schedule is naive at best."

Despite the persistent problems, Defence maintains construction of the submarines is still on track to begin in Adelaide in 2023.




Repent!

The darkest hour of Humanity is upon us. The world
shall meet it's end and we shall be submerged into a
new dark age. Repent your sins, for the apocalypse,
and the end, is extremely f@#king nigh!
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[*] posted on 23-1-2020 at 12:17 PM


Indonesia completes diving trials on first locally assembled submarine

Ridzwan Rahmat, Singapore - Jane's Navy International

22 January 2020

Indonesia's first indigenously assembled Nagapasa-class diesel-electric submarine, Alugoro (405) , has successfully completed the nominal diving depth (NDD) phase of its sea trials.

The trial phase was conducted on 20 January in waters off Banyuwangi in East Java and in the Bali Sea, according to Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL. The vessel is expected to be handed over to the Indonesian Navy in several months.

"During the NDD phase the submarine Alugoro was able to dive to a depth of 250 m," said PT PAL in a statement, adding that the contract is about 90% concluded.

Alugoro is the third of three Nagapasa-class submarines ordered from South Korea's Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) in March 2011.

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[*] posted on 27-1-2020 at 02:05 PM


Interview-in-The-Diplomat

Wed 22 January 2020

By H I Sutton

Interview in The Diplomat
Read full interview here.

https://thediplomat.com/2020/01/h-i-sutton-on-the-future-of-...

H.I. Sutton on the Future of Underwater Warfare in the Indo-Pacific Region.

What are some of the future strategic and technological challenges to submarine forces in the region?

The Diplomat: First off, why are most navies in the Indo-Pacific region pursuing large-scale submarine procurement programs? Why invest in a powerful submarine force?

Sutton: Submarines are the unsaid capital ships of today, only competing with aircraft carriers for the top slot. And while the carriers (and there is also a carrier arms race going on in the region) are more visible in terms of power projection, submarines happen to be their natural predator. So nearly all regional players have submarines near the top of their priorities.

The larger navies’ programs are interesting, but generally well covered. But smaller regional navies such as Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, and the Philippines are also embarking on this journey. For me that’s a largely untold story that is part of a bigger trend, which is seeing submarines proliferate.

What are modern submarines primarily used for?

Even the least sophisticated submarines are apex predators in the naval environment. They have been an asymmetrical weapon since long before that became a buzzword. So they offer the capability to take out enemy warships, even if the enemy fleet is on paper much more powerful. In operational terms they are also used for intelligence gathering, commerce raiding, and special forces missions.

Only the best submarines are likely to be useful in countering other submarines, however, so there is still an advantage to being a bigger player.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of conventionally- and nuclear-powered submarines respectively?

The main advantages of nuclear-powered submarines are range, speed, and additional power. This latter point is sometimes overlooked, but it means that nuclear submarines can generally have much larger sonar arrays, so they can hear targets and threats much farther away.

But it is not all one-sided. Conventional boats have advantages of cost, crewing requirements, and, in some circumstances, stealth. The biggest one is cost. So conventional boats are still very formidable and make most sense for many navies.

What are some of the challenges that developing countries like Vietnam, which operates a fleet of Russian-made Project 636M (improved Kilo-class) diesel electric attack submarines, face in maintaining and deploying such a force?

Navies which are relatively new to the submarine game will have to build the human aspects of submarine operations. The safety culture, the maintenance culture, and so on. And also the tactics and leadership, which should be tailored to the specific navy. And all this is without covering logistics, maintenance, and upgrades.

Vietnam is an interesting example. They have just commissioned a specialized submarine rescue ship, and also announced an indigenous submarine program. They will build a small 100-ton submarine, which I think is a pragmatic approach.

How difficult is it to establish an indigenous submarine construction program? For example, Taiwan is attempting to build a fleet of eight diesel-electric attack subs without any prior experience but some international support. What makes or breaks such a program?

Taiwan has some unique political challenges. Their indigenous design is grounded in their own experience of Dutch submarines, however, so it is low risk. The x-rudder may add complications perhaps, but overall the design is conservative. This is probably a very good thing as it will minimize unknowns.

The bigger question is whether it will be modern enough to stand up to improving Chinese submarines? And whether four boats will ever be enough?

Besides, the traditional suppliers (e.g., Russia, France, Germany, Sweden etc.) do you see any new players in the submarine procurement market emerging in the Indo-Pacific region?
South Korea is stepping into the market, and China is upping its export game.

For a few years Japan has looked to be a possible supplier. They did offer their subs to Australia, losing to the French proposal, but have been slow elsewhere. One factor is that they are very advanced, and there are questions as to how much of its technology Japan is willing to share. But they are an interesting possibility, and with the construction gap between their latest Soryu-class boats and the next generation 29SS design, they could benefit from additional orders to keep their skills honed.
Explain some of the biggest changes in undersea warfare technology since the end of the Cold War.

The first one which comes to mind is the increased use of conventionally armed land attack cruise missiles. The U.S. Navy’s Tomahawk actually entered service at the end of the Cold War but as a trend, it’s something which has matured since then.

Behind the scenes better sensors, such as sonar, optronic masts, and navigation systems have improved. Even many smaller patrol submarines now have flank sonar arrays and towed sonar arrays, something only the leading navies had during the Cold War.

To what degree has new submarine technology been able to offset advances in anti-submarine warfare?

This is a tricky one, but my feeling is that submarines still hold a natural advantage. The oceans have not gotten any smaller, and actually anti-submarine warfare is under-invested and under-rehearsed in most navies it seems.

Many experts express concern that sea-based nuclear-powered ballistic submarines will be easier to detect and destroy given the gradual introduction of more accurate detection and tracking technologies. This could negatively impact strategic stability in a political crisis between two nuclear powers. Do you share this concern?

I would agree, if it happens. I’ll pick on the word “gradual.” I think that submarine stealth and situational awareness will continue to advance in parallel, or ahead, of these new detection technologies. We will see.

With the emergence of smaller unmanned underwater vehicles, will we see an end to manned submarine missions in the coming decades?

I think that it’s inevitable, but it may take longer than some predictions. The U.S. Navy’s Orca XLUUV will probably go down in history as the first proper drone submarine, but several countries in the region are working on relatively large autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). China, South Korea, and Japan all have projects.

One twist may be that smaller navies can catch up quick with large armed AUV adoption, especially if they are single purpose designs. While the maritime environment represents its own challenges, the AI aspect is a democratized skill available in every country. It’s a hard space to predict and I think that the future may hold some surprises.

How will underwater warfare change in the near future with the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI)?

AI is already leading to a revolution in undersea warfare. Most visibly in autonomous vehicles, but inside crewed submarines also. Navigation, system automation and so on. So submarine crews could get smaller.

In your opinion, what is the most common misperception that nonexperts have about underwater warfare and submarines?

Good question. For the conventional submarines operated by most countries in the region, people forget that they spend most of their time tied up in port. Their endurance is limited and longer patrols take a lot of preparation. This is a major factor in submarine operations which rarely (if ever) crops up in internet discussions on submarine capabilities.
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[*] posted on 4-2-2020 at 02:43 PM


FORBES magazine

Feb 2, 2020, 07:50am

Photo Reveals Turkish Submarine Is First With New Capability

H I Sutton
Contributor
Aerospace & Defense
I cover the changing world of underwater warfare.

Turkey is emerging as a new player in the international submarine business. A Turkish Navy submarine was spotted passing through Istanbul on January 30 with new equipment.

Trained eyes spotted an array of twelve white circles just above the waterline. This appears to be the business end of the locally developed Zargana anti-torpedo defense system.


Turkish Navy submarine with what appears to be the Aselsan Zargana Torpedo Countermeasure System ... [+] Yörük Işık (@YorukIsik)

Ship spotters often report interesting vessels transiting between the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The Bosporus Strait goes through Istanbul where the photographers have easy access to the waterfront. A lot of Russian military hardware destined for Syria goes that way for example. Thanks to an international law known as the Montreux Convention, foreign submarines are forbidden to transit there under most circumstances. So the submarines which pass the waiting cameras are invariably Turkish.

This submarine is believed to be TCG Anafartalar (S356), a German designed Type 209/1400 Preveze Class submarine. It is one of four of the class which was built locally at the Gölcük Naval Shipyard. They are going to be given a Turkish developed mid-life upgrade (MLU) over the next few years so this new defensive system may be part of that.

The Zargana Countermeasure System has been developed by Aselsan to protect submarines from incoming torpedoes. It does this by launching salvos of acoustic 'deceptors' and 'jammers.'

These are small torpedo-like objects which are launched from tubes under the submarine’s casing. The deceptors imitate the acoustic and movement characteristics of the targeted submarine. This misleads the torpedo into homing in on the wrong target. Meanwhile the jammers emit a broadband high-level noise that drowns out the operating frequencies of most acoustic (sonar) homing torpedoes. This sort of decoy system is known as ‘soft kill’ in defense circles.

Other countries also load torpedo countermeasures aboard submarines, although information is hard to come by about this secretive aspect of underwater warfare. The Russian Navy has fielded the much larger ‘Barrier’ system since the Cold War. This has decoys similar to the Zargana, and may now also include actual mini-torpedoes which try to hit the incoming torpedo.

Turkey is actively marketing the Zargana system. It is known to have been exported to Indonesia for their own Type-209 submarines. And Turkey is upgrading some of Pakistan's Agosta class submarines with the system. These French designed boats will carry part of Pakistan's nuclear deterrent in the form of the Babur cruise missile.

Turkey is also developing an indigenous submarine which may use the system.
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[*] posted on 28-2-2020 at 12:15 PM


Spanish S 80 AIP system passes final tests

David Ing, Madrid - Jane's Navy International

27 February 2020

The air-independent propulsion (AIP) system for Spain's new S 80-class submarines has now passed its final tests, with Abengoa being chosen as the supplier, Navantia announced on 26 February.

The AIP system was originally due to be integrated into all four ships during their construction, but development delays meant the decision had already been made to retrofit it to the first two when they undergo their first major overhauls.

The S 80 AIP system is based on fuel-cell technology that uses hydrogen processed from bioethanol and oxygen to generate electricity, enabling the vessel to stay under water for several weeks.

(125 of 434 words)
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[*] posted on 5-3-2020 at 10:00 PM


Japan commissions first Soryu-class submarine equipped with lithium-ion batteries

Kosuke Takahashi, Tokyo - Jane's Defence Weekly

05 March 2020


The JMSDF commissioned JS Oryu, its first submarine equipped with lithium-ion batteries, in a ceremony held on 5 March. Source: MHI

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) commissioned its first Soryu-class diesel-electric attack submarine (SSK) equipped with lithium-ion batteries in a ceremony held on 5 March in Hyogo Prefecture in west-central Japan.

Named JS Oryu (with pennant number SS 511), the 84-m-long boat was inducted into the JMSDF's Submarine Flotilla 1, based in Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, shortly after being handed over by shipbuilder Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) at its facility in Kobe, a JMSDF spokesperson told Jane's that same day.

Oryu is the 11th submarine of the class and the sixth to be built by MHI, with the other five having been built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI). Oryu was laid down in March 2015 and launched in October 2018.

The total cost of acquiring the submarine amounted to about JPY66 billion (USD615 million), the spokesperson said.

The launch comes after GS Yuasa, a Kyoto-based developer and manufacturer of battery systems, had announced in February 2017 that Japan would become the first country in the world to equip SSKs with lithium-ion batteries in place of lead-acid batteries.

At the time the company said the batteries, which store considerably more energy than the lead-acid batteries, would be mounted on the final two Soryu-class boats for the JMSDF: SS 511 (Oryu ), and SS 512 (Toryu ).

According to Jane's Fighting Ships, the Soryu class has a beam of 9.1 m, a hull draught of 8.4 m, and a displacement of 2,947 tonnes when surfaced and 4,100 tonnes when submerged.

The previous boats of the class have been fitted with two Kawasaki 12V 25/25 diesel generators and four Kawasaki Kockums V4-275R Stirling air-independent propulsion (AIP) engines, and use lead-acid batteries for energy storage.
Each of the platforms has a top speed of 20 kt when submerged and of 12 kt when surfaced.

(327 of 667 words)
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[*] posted on 6-3-2020 at 05:55 PM


Quote: Originally posted by bug2  
Japan commissions first Soryu-class submarine equipped with lithium-ion batteries

Kosuke Takahashi, Tokyo - Jane's Defence Weekly

05 March 2020


The JMSDF commissioned JS Oryu, its first submarine equipped with lithium-ion batteries, in a ceremony held on 5 March. Source: MHI

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) commissioned its first Soryu-class diesel-electric attack submarine (SSK) equipped with lithium-ion batteries in a ceremony held on 5 March in Hyogo Prefecture in west-central Japan.

Named JS Oryu (with pennant number SS 511), the 84-m-long boat was inducted into the JMSDF's Submarine Flotilla 1, based in Kure, Hiroshima Prefecture, shortly after being handed over by shipbuilder Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) at its facility in Kobe, a JMSDF spokesperson told Jane's that same day.

Oryu is the 11th submarine of the class and the sixth to be built by MHI, with the other five having been built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI). Oryu was laid down in March 2015 and launched in October 2018.

The total cost of acquiring the submarine amounted to about JPY66 billion (USD615 million), the spokesperson said.

The launch comes after GS Yuasa, a Kyoto-based developer and manufacturer of battery systems, had announced in February 2017 that Japan would become the first country in the world to equip SSKs with lithium-ion batteries in place of lead-acid batteries.

At the time the company said the batteries, which store considerably more energy than the lead-acid batteries, would be mounted on the final two Soryu-class boats for the JMSDF: SS 511 (Oryu ), and SS 512 (Toryu ).

According to Jane's Fighting Ships, the Soryu class has a beam of 9.1 m, a hull draught of 8.4 m, and a displacement of 2,947 tonnes when surfaced and 4,100 tonnes when submerged.

The previous boats of the class have been fitted with two Kawasaki 12V 25/25 diesel generators and four Kawasaki Kockums V4-275R Stirling air-independent propulsion (AIP) engines, and use lead-acid batteries for energy storage.
Each of the platforms has a top speed of 20 kt when submerged and of 12 kt when surfaced.

(327 of 667 words)


We can think it… :mad: but just don't say it. :no:
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[*] posted on 10-3-2020 at 09:31 PM


Further to that

Japan commissions its first submarine running on lithium-ion batteries

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force on Thursday welcomed into service its first submarine using lithium-ion batteries with the commissioning of the 11th Soryu-class boat.

In a ceremony held at the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries shipyard in the city of Kobe, officials welcomed the diesel-electric attack submarine Ouryu into service, where it will be assigned to the 1st Submarine Flotilla in the nearby port of Kure.

The Ouryu is the sixth Soryu-class boat to be built by MHI, with Kawasaki Heavy Industries having built five more and building the 12th and last such submarine ordered by Japan. The Ouryu was launched in October 2018.

Both Ouryu and the last boat in its class, which will be christened the Toryu, will be slightly different from the earlier boats in the class, as they’ll use lithium-ion batteries manufactured by GS Yuasa in lieu of Stirling-cycle engines that recharge traditional lead-acid batteries for submerged operations.

Speaking during a 2017 presentation in Singapore, former head of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force’s submarine fleet Vice Adm. Masao Kobayashi said the batteries used in the Ouryu and Toryu are lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide, or NCA, batteries. He said the technology requires less maintenance and is capable of longer endurance at high speeds while submerged compared to lead-acid batteries.

Other advantages cited by Kobayashi include shorter charging time and longer life spans. The latter factor would mean that fewer battery changes are required over the life of the submarine.

However, he conceded that this is offset by higher acquisition costs due to the new technology, with the Ouryu costing the equivalent of $608 million when contracted compared to the $488 million cost of building the 10th Soryu-class boat.

Japan introduced lithium-ion batteries into its submarines after a lengthy development and testing period, which started as far back as 2002. Extensive testing starting in 2006.

The Soryu class displaces 2,900 tons surfaced and 4,200 tons submerged, measuring just less than 275 feet in length. Its top speed is 13 knots on the surface and 20 knots submerged. Each boat has a crew of 65, is equipped with six torpedo tubes, and can carry up to 30 21-inch heavyweight torpedoes, Harpoon anti-ship missiles or mines.

Following the Soryus, Japan will introduce a new class of submarines, which is currently known only as the 29SS, named for Heisei 29, or the 29th year of former Emperor Akihito’s reign, which corresponds to the year 2017 in the Gregorian calendar.








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[*] posted on 24-3-2020 at 02:50 PM


Russia is currently designing Husky-class fifth-generation of submarines

Posted On Monday, 23 March 2020 15:04

Russia is currently building fourth-generation submarines and designing fifth-generation. Little is known about the new submarines, but it is clear they will eliminate problems encountered by modern nuclear submarines, online Gazeta.ru publication writes.


In April 2018, a concept of the USC submarine emerged on the occasion of the Malakhit bureau’s 70th anniversary. This concept features, in the nose portion, a module with Kalibr or similar missiles along with eight mounting seats for modules in the central part. On the sides are hydroacoustic system antennas. A jet propeller serves as a propulsive unit.

There is little open information on the latest Husky-class fifth-generation submarines. Their characteristics can be only imagined. In particular, the underwater displacement is likely to comprise 12-13 thousand tons. They will have a two-section construction and the crew will number close to 90 men. They will be smaller than the current Yasen-M-class SSGN of project 885M. It will increase the maneuverability and stealth characteristics of new submarines.

Reports said the Husky is designed in two options. The antisubmarine option will fight U-boats, mostly SSBN of the US Columbia class and the British Vanguard.

The second option will be armed with Tsirkon hypersonic missiles to destroy big surface warships, nuclear aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers, universal amphibious assault ships, etc. Tsirkon has a cruising speed of over 7000 km/h and can hit targets at a distance of 1000 km.

The submarines will be less noisy than fourth-generation U-boats. They will have a composite hull. Composites will be used to make the bow and stern rudders, stabilizers, mast housing, propellers and shaft lines. The materials will decrease the reflection of adversary sonars and the weight of a submarine.
The Husky will have a single integrated combat information system with artificial intellect.

The fifth-generation submarine is designed by Malakhit Bureau in St. Petersburg. The Husky has to replace Antey-class SSGN of project 949A, as well as SSN of project 971, Shchuka-class project 671TMK, Condor-class project 945A, and Barracuda-class project 945.

Some reports said the fifth-generation submarines will have a completely new reactor instead of the water-cooled and water-moderated one (VVER). It is likely to be a development of the reactor installed in Lira-class SSN of project 705. “The main power plant of the project was a reactor and a steam generator with a liquid crystal heat exchanger (lead and bismuth alloy) and a single-shaft steam turbine,” expert Konstantin Makienko said.

Submarines with liquid-metal plant exceeded second-generation VVER submarines two times in maneuverability and 1.5-2.5 times in power/weight ratio. They are 1.3-1.5 times better in specific weight indicators. However, liquid metal demands to constantly keep the steam unit in a hot state and thus triggers additional power consumption.

Besides, special operations to prevent alloy oxidizing, control its state and periodically withdraw oxides were necessary to keep the physical-chemical stability of the liquid-crystal heat exchanger.

There are grounds to believe the Husky will not face the problems. The main power plant is likely to be a single-shaft, single-reactor unit with a steam turbine and increased steam parameters.

The latest underwater detection means are of specific significance for the Husky. It is important to achieve a longer monitoring range of the underwater situation, increase the precision of coordinates and reliability of target identification.

Otherwise, it would be problematic to dominate in an armed standoff with adversary submarines in the World Ocean.

“There is no doubt that domestic shipbuilders want to create a maneuverable, speedy and relatively small-displacement submarine, considerably cut the crew, introduce effective arms and complex automation. One of the main tasks is to decrease underwater noise several times against previous submarines,” Makienko said.

He believes that if the Husky is constructed by the modular method, the approach will boost Russian underwater shipbuilding, Gazeta.ru said.
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[*] posted on 3-4-2020 at 10:26 PM


India set to deliver Myanmar’s first submarine

Amit Lokhande, Bangalore - Jane's Navy International

03 April 2020

New Delhi is preparing to deliver a Kilo-class diesel-electric submarine that was in service with the Indian Navy as INS Sindhuvir to the Myanmar Navy.

The transfer will also include operational and maintenance training to the Myanmar Navy, which will be operating a submarine for the first time. However, it is unclear if this represents a lease or a permanent transfer.

Sindhuvir was commissioned into the Indian Navy in 1988 and was in service as part of the 11th submarine squadron, which is based at Vishakhapatnam. The boat completed a refit at the state-owned Hindustan Shipyard Ltd. from August 2017 to February 2020.

(128 of 255 words)
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[*] posted on 9-4-2020 at 02:34 PM


Aft-section of Swedish Blekinge-class submarine has been put together

POSTED ON WEDNESDAY, 08 APRIL 2020 15:39

The Blekinge-class submarine is next generation of submarines developed by Kockums for the Swedish Navy, also known as the A26 type. Two units are to equip the Swedish navy under the names of HSwMS Blekinge and HSwMS Skåne. The aft-section of one of them has been put in place.


Aft section of Swedish Blekinge class submarine has been put togetherThe A-26 is one of the most advanced and forward-looking non-nuclear submarine designs in the world. The baseline version is optimized for littoral combat (Illustration source: Saab)

First planned at the beginning of the 1990s, the project was called "U-båt 2000" and was intended to be ready by the late 1990s or early 2000. With the end of the Cold War the naval threat from the Soviet Union disappeared and the new submarine class was deemed unnecessary. The project lay dormant for years until the mid-2000s when the need for a replacement for the Södermanland class became apparent. Originally, the Scandinavian countries had intended to collaborate on the Viking class, but Denmark's withdrawal from submarine operations meant that Kockums proceeded on their own.

On 18 March 2015, the project was restarted after the Swedish government placed a formal order for two A26 submarines for a maximum total cost of SEK 8.2 bn (approximately US$840 Million). A Letter of Intent (LOI) had earlier been signed by Saab and FMV (The Swedish Defence Material Administration) in June 2014 regarding the Swedish Armed Forces’ underwater capability for the period 2015-2024. Saab has since acquired Kockums. The order in question for the two A26 submarines has been placed with what is now "Saab Kockums." These are to be delivered no later than 2022.

Saab's new A26 submarines use advanced technology to make them effectively invisible – by balancing the complete range of signatures. This makes them impossible to detect, classify and localize. Sweden has a long history of designing silent submarines. The A26 features large, resiliently mounted platforms, using extensive flexible mountings and baffles to minimize structural borne and transient noise, as well as absorb shocks. To further reduce sound, the space between the frames is filled with acoustic damping materials. This approach is used in a unique combination with many other features and methods such as sound-isolated AIP Stirling and diesel engine modules; flexible hoses and compensators; specifying maximum flow speed in air ducts and pipes; minimum bending radius on pipes; and the special design of the hull, fin and casing.
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